Monthly Archives: May 2015

Electrical conductivity of the thermal dusty plasma under the conditions of a hybrid plasma environment simulation facility

We discuss the inductively heated plasma generator (IPG) facility in application to the generation of the thermal dusty plasma formed by the positively charged dust particles and the electrons emitted by them. We develop a theoretical model for the calculation of plasma electrical conductivity under typical conditions of the IPG. We show that the electrical conductivity of dusty plasma is defined by collisions with the neutral gas molecules and by the electron number density. The latter is calculated in the approximations of an ideal and strongly coupled particle system and in the regime of weak and strong screening of the particle charge. The maximum attainable electron number density and corresponding maximum plasma electrical conductivity prove to be independent of the particle emissivity. Analysis of available experiments is performed, in particular, of our recent experiment with plasma formed by the combustion products of a propane–air mixture and the CeO 2 particl...

Dust ion acoustic solitary structures in presence of isothermal positrons. (arXiv:1505.05005v2 [physics.plasm-ph] UPDATED)

The Sagdeev potential technique has been employed to study the dust ion acoustic solitary waves and double layers in an unmagnetized collisionless dusty plasma consisting of negatively charged static dust grains, adiabatic warm ions, and isothermally distributed electrons and positrons. A computational scheme has been developed to draw the qualitatively different compositional parameter spaces or solution spaces showing the nature of existence of different solitary structures with respect to any parameter of the present plasma system. The qualitatively distinct solution spaces give the overall scenario regarding the existence of different solitary structures. The present system supports both positive and negative potential double layers. The negative potential double layer always restricts the occurrence of negative potential solitary waves, i.e., any sequence of negative potential solitary waves having monotonically increasing amplitude converges to a negative potential double layer. However, there exists a parameter regime for which the positive potential double layer is unable to restrict the occurrence of positive potential solitary waves. As a result, in this region of the parameter space, there exist solitary waves after the formation of positive potential double layer, i.e., positive potential supersolitons have been observed. But the amplitudes of these supersolitons are bounded. A general theory for the existence of bounded supersolitons has been discussed analytically by imposing the restrictions on the Mach number. For any small value of positron concentration, there is no effect of very hot positrons on the dust ion acoustic solitary structures. The qualitatively different solution spaces are capable of producing new results for the formation of solitary structures.

Invariants in the Yukawa system’s thermodynamic phase diagram. (arXiv:1505.06706v1 [cond-mat.soft])

This paper shows that several known properties of the Yukawa system can be derived from the isomorph theory, which applies to any system that has strong correlations between its virial and potential-energy equilibrium fluctuations. Such "Roskilde-simple" systems have a simplified thermodynamic phase diagram deriving from the fact that they have curves (isomorphs) along which structure and dynamics in reduced units are invariant to a good approximation. We show that the Yukawa system has strong virial potential-energy correlations and identify its isomorphs by two different methods. One method, the so-called direct isomorph check, identifies isomorphs numerically from jumps of relatively small density changes (here 10%). The second method identifies isomorphs analytically from the pair potential. The curves obtained by the two methods are close to each other; these curves are confirmed to be isomorphs by demonstrating the invariance of the radial distribution function, the static structure factor, the mean-square displacement as a function of time, and the incoherent intermediate scattering function. Since the melting line is predicted to be an isomorph, the theory provides a derivation of a known approximate analytical expression for this line in the temperature-density phase diagram. The paper's results give the first demonstration that the isomorph theory can be applied to systems like dense colloidal suspensions and strongly coupled dusty plasmas.

Practical thermodynamics of Yukawa systems at strong coupling. (arXiv:1505.05309v1 [physics.plasm-ph])

Simple practical approach to estimate thermodynamic properties of strongly coupled Yukawa systems, in both fluid and solid phases, is presented. The accuracy of the approach is tested by extensive comparison with direct computer simulation results (for fluids and solids) and the recently proposed shortest-graph method (for solids). Possible applications to other systems of softly repulsive particles are briefly discussed.

Wave turbulence observed in an auto-oscillating complex (dusty) plasma

We study a complex plasma under microgravity conditions that is auto-oscillating due to a heartbeat instability and contains quasi-solitary wave ridges —oscillons. We demonstrate that this system can serve as a nearly ideal model system to mimic weak Kolmogorov-Zakharov–type wave turbulence. The slopes of the structure functions agree reasonably well with power laws assuming extended self-similarity. The energy spectrum displays multiple cascades, which we attribute to the influence of friction, the heartbeat instability and a modulational instability.

Measurement of the speed of sound by observation of the Mach cones in a complex plasma under microgravity conditions. (arXiv:1411.7641v4 [physics.plasm-ph] UPDATED)

We report the first observation of the Mach cones excited by a larger microparticle (projectile) moving through a cloud of smaller microparticles (dust) in a complex plasma with neon as a buffer gas under microgravity conditions. A collective motion of the dust particles occurs as propagation of the contact discontinuity. The corresponding speed of sound was measured by a special method of the Mach cone visualization. The measurement results are incompatible with the theory of ion acoustic waves. The estimate for the pressure in a strongly coupled Coulomb system and a scaling law for the complex plasma make it possible to derive an evaluation for the speed of sound, which is in a reasonable agreement with the experiments in complex plasmas.

Dust ion acoustic solitary structures in presence of isothermal positrons. (arXiv:1505.05005v1 [physics.plasm-ph])

The Sagdeev potential technique has been employed to study the dust ion acoustic solitary waves and double layers in an unmagnetized collisionless dusty plasma consisting of negatively charged static dust grains, adiabatic warm ions, and isothermally distributed electrons and positrons. A computational scheme has been developed to draw the qualitatively different compositional parameter spaces or solution spaces showing the nature of existence of different solitary structures with respect to any parameter of the present plasma system. The qualitatively distinct solution spaces give the overall scenario regarding the existence of different solitary structures. The present system supports both positive and negative potential double layers. The negative potential double layer always restricts the occurrence of negative potential solitary waves, i.e., any sequence of negative potential solitary waves having monotonically increasing amplitude converges to a negative potential double layer. However, there exists a parameter regime for which the positive potential double layer is unable to restrict the occurrence of positive potential solitary waves. As a result, in this region of the parameter space, there exist solitary waves after the formation of positive potential double layer, i.e., positive potential supersolitons have been observed. But the amplitudes of these supersolitons are bounded. A general theory for the existence of bounded supersolitons has been discussed analytically by imposing the restrictions on the Mach number. There is no effect of very hot positrons on the dust ion acoustic solitary structures. The qualitatively different solution spaces are capable of producing new results for the formation of solitary structures.

Approximate expression for the electric potential around an absorbing particle in isotropic collisionless plasma

A new approximate expression for the potential distribution around an absorbing particle in isotropic collisionless plasma is proposed. The approximate expression is given by the sum of the Debye-Hückel potential with an effective screening length and the far-field asymptote obtained from the solution of the linearized Poisson equation. In contrast to analogous models, the effective screening length is not fixed but depends on the distance from the particle. This allows us to obtain a more accurate approximation for the potential distribution in the entire range of distances. The dependence of the screening length on the distance is predicted from the analysis of the charge density distribution function. This dependence contains two adjustable parameters, which are calculated by applying the procedure based on charge balance considerations. Using the obtained results, simple expressions for the parameters of the model are proposed. In addition, a simple expression for the characteristic screening length, which can be used to approximate the potential distribution near the particle, is obtained. The developed model potential is shown to be in excellent agreement with the solution of the nonlinear Poisson equation for typical conditions used in experiments with complex plasmas.

Extraordinary Exciton Conductance Induced by Strong Coupling

Author(s): Johannes Feist and Francisco J. Garcia-Vidal

We demonstrate that exciton conductance in organic materials can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude when the molecules are strongly coupled to an electromagnetic mode. Using a 1D model system, we show how the formation of a collective polaritonic mode allows excitons to bypass the disordered...


[Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 196402] Published Tue May 12, 2015

Towards Stronger Coulomb Coupling in an Ultracold Neutral Plasma

Ultracold neutral plasmas are strongly coupled Coulomb systems that are generated by photoionizing lasercooled atoms close to the ionization threshold. The strong coupling parameter Γ is limited at times later than ∼100 ns by disorder-induced heating. A recent simulation predicted that higher values of Γ can be realized in ultracold neutral plasmas if the plasma ions are excited to higher ionization states. In this paper we present recent results from an experiment that increases the strong coupling of an ultracold neutral plasma by promoting the plasma ions to the second ionization state. Using laser-induced fluorescence we map out the ion velocity distribution of the Ca+ ions in a partially doubly ionized plasma and show that the heating due to the second ionization depends on the timing of the second ionization laser pulses. We compare our results to MD simulations, which estimate that Γ increases from approximately 2.5 to 3.6. (© 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)